Superficial irregularities (roughness and undulation), dents, parallel grooves, and other characteristic surface features are collectively called “surface textures.” Converting these surface characteristics into numerical
measurements is referred to as surface texture
Today, surface texture parameters are increasingly acquired through three-dimensional surface texture data with abundant areal information instead of the conventional two-dimensional contour profile curves used in profile method measurement. This is called the areal method.
Conventionally, surface texture parameters were defined based on profile curves (curves indicated by the intersection of surfaces). The formal name for this method of measurement is the profile method, but it is also known as line roughness measurement. The surface profile is generally measured with stylus probe measurement instruments.
This introductions explains why surface roughness needs to be measured and describes trends in surface roughness measurement.
The confocal microscope is gathering attention as the device of choice for easy three-dimensional surface profile measuring in air, without touching the sample.
Stereolithography (SLA) is a light‐based 3D printing technique in which layers of a liquid resin are sequentially photo‐cross‐linked into a solid 3D structure. Of all 3D printing techniques, SLA is the most versatile, accurate, and precise additive manufacturing technique.
Electron beam melting (EBM) is an additive powder‐bed fusion process, which builds up bulk metallic components by a defined sequence of process steps.