Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide in the last two decades, are mainly due to the pathological changes inside the heart or blood vessels. Current treatment prescription is to replace obstructed blood vessels by synthetic alternatives, but it can only cure patients effectually when the vessel diameter is larger than a certain value because the cell attachment capacity on a small‐caliber artificial vessel is usually unacceptable for long‐term patency. Here a femtosecond filamenting laser‐based fabrication approach that can produce in situ microstructures on the inner surface of small‐caliber tubules is reported. It is shown that the inner‐surface fabrication with an aspect ratio as high as 10:1 can be achieved and the processed samples exhibit significant changes in physical properties including topography, roughness, hydrophobicity, as well as in biological property with improved ability for Hela cells to adhere and grow. The results provide a possibility toward fabricating small‐caliber artificial vessels that might be suitable for long‐term patency use.
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