21.06.2024 •

Room-Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Batteries: From Research Advances to Practical Perspectives


Room-temperature sodium-sulfur (RT-Na/S) batteries are promising alternatives for next-generation energy storage systems with high energy density and high power density. However, some notorious issues are hampering the practical application of RT-Na/S batteries. Besides, the working mechanism of RT-Na/S batteries under practical conditions such as high sulfur loading, lean electrolyte, and low capacity ratio between the negative and positive electrode (N/P ratio), is of essential importance for practical applications, yet the significance of these parameters has long been disregarded. Herein, it is comprehensively reviewed recent advances on Na metal anode, S cathode, electrolyte, and separator engineering for RT-Na/S batteries. The discrepancies between laboratory research and practical conditions are elaborately discussed, endeavors toward practical applications are highlighted, and suggestions for the practical values of the crucial parameters are rationally proposed. Furthermore, an empirical equation to estimate the actual energy density of RT-Na/S pouch cells under practical conditions is rationally proposed for the first time, making it possible to evaluate the gravimetric energy density of the cells under practical conditions. This review aims to reemphasize the vital importance of the crucial parameters for RT-Na/S batteries to bridge the gaps between laboratory research and practical applications.

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