Chemical batteries
20.02.2024 •

Biomimetic Exogenous “Tissue Batteries” as Artificial Power Sources for Implantable Bioelectronic Devices Manufacturing


Implantable bioelectronic devices (IBDs) have gained attention for their capacity to conformably detect physiological and pathological signals and further provide internal therapy. However, traditional power sources integrated into these IBDs possess intricate limitations such as bulkiness, rigidity, and biotoxicity. Recently, artificial “tissue batteries” (ATBs) have diffusely developed as artificial power sources for IBDs manufacturing, enabling comprehensive biological-activity monitoring, diagnosis, and therapy. ATBs are on-demand and designed to accommodate the soft and confining curved placement space of organisms, minimizing interface discrepancies, and providing ample power for clinical applications. This review presents the near-term advancements in ATBs, with a focus on their miniaturization, flexibility, biodegradability, and power density. Furthermore, it delves into material-screening, structural-design, and energy density across three distinct categories of TBs, distinguished by power supply strategies. These types encompass innovative energy storage devices (chemical batteries and supercapacitors), power conversion devices that harness power from human-body (biofuel cells, thermoelectric nanogenerators, bio-potential devices, piezoelectric harvesters, and triboelectric devices), and energy transfer devices that receive and utilize external energy (radiofrequency-ultrasound energy harvesters, ultrasound-induced energy harvesters, and photovoltaic devices). Ultimately, future challenges and prospects emphasize ATBs with the indispensability of bio-safety, flexibility, and high-volume energy density as crucial components in long-term implantable bioelectronic devices.

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Advanced Science