Multiscale and Uniform Liquid Metal Thin‐Film Patterning Based on Soft Lithography for 3D Heterogeneous Integrated Soft Microsystems: Additive Stamping and Subtractive Reverse Stamping
The use of intrinsically soft conductors, such as liquid eutectic gallium–indium alloy (EGaIn), has enabled the fabrication of bioinspired soft electronics. The fabrication of EGaIn thin films with high resolution and size scalability is one of the primary technical hurdles. Soft lithography using wetting/nonwetting surface modifications and 3D heterogeneous integration can address these challenges. This study demonstrates multiscale EGaIn thin-film patterning by utilizing additive stamping for large-scale (mm–cm) soft electronics and subtractive reverse stamping for microscale (μm–mm) soft electronics. These structures can be integrated to fabricate several functional soft microsystems.